African penguin (Jackass penguin)
The region's only resident penguin, it has a diagnostic black and white facial pattern. Some birds show a double bar on the throat and chest - this is diagnostic of the Magellanic Penguin, from which it is not likely to be differenciated in the field.
Male has heavier bill than female. Juvenile is dark greyish blue with grey cheeks, and lacks the breast band.
Occurs within 50 km of the shore; breeds mostly on offshore islands, with three mainland colonies.
(af)rican penguins breed colonially and eighty to ninety percent of the pairs remain together in consecutive years, often at the same site. A clutch of two eggs is normal and incubation lasts about forty days, whilst brooding is done by both parents. Chicks fledge, between sixty and onehundredthirty days, and leave their parents. They return 12 - 22 months later to molt into adult pluamge, this takes about twenty days.
Loud, donkey-like braying, especially at night.